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<jats:p>A new optimized size exclusion chromatography small-angle X-ray scattering (SEC-SAXS) system for biomolecular SAXS at the Australian Synchrotron SAXS/WAXS beamline has been developed. The compact configuration reduces sample dilution to maximize sensitivity. Coflow sample presentation allows an 11-fold increase in flux on sample without capillary fouling, improving throughput and data quality, which are now primarily limited by the full flux available on the beamline. Multi-wavelength fibre optic UV analysis in close proximity to the X-ray beam allows for accurate concentration determination for samples with known UV extinction coefficients and thus estimation of the molecular weight of the scattering particle from the forward X-ray scattering intensity. Fast-flow low-volume SEC columns provide sample throughput competitive with batch concentration series measurements, albeit with a concomitant reduction of potential resolution relative to lower flow rates and larger SEC columns. The performance of the system is demonstrated using a set of model proteins, and its utility to solve various challenges is illustrated with a diverse suite of protein samples. These developments increase the quality and rigor of SEC-SAXS analysis and open new avenues for biomolecular solution SEC-SAXS studies that have been challenged by low sample yields, temporal instability, radiation sensitivity and complex mixtures.</jats:p>

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Applied Crystallography


International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)

Publication Date





97 - 111