Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The COVID-19 pandemic saw unprecedented resources and funds driven into research for the development, and subsequent rapid distribution, of vaccines, diagnostics and directly acting antivirals (DAAs). DAAs have undeniably prevented progression and life-threatening conditions in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, there are concerns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), antiviral resistance specifically, for DAAs. To preserve activity of DAAs for COVID-19 therapy, as well as detect possible mutations conferring resistance, antimicrobial stewardship and surveillance were rapidly implemented in England. This paper expands on the ubiquitous ongoing public health activities carried out in England, including epidemiologic, virologic and genomic surveillance, to support the stewardship of DAAs and assess the deployment, safety, effectiveness and resistance potential of these novel and repurposed therapeutics.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

Publication Date





ii37 - ii42


Healthcare-Associated Infection (HCAI), Fungal, Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), Antimicrobial Use (AMU) & Sepsis Division, United Kingdom Health Security Agency (UKHSA), London, UK.