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Imaging of biological matter across resolution scales entails the challenge of preserving the direct and unambiguous correlation of subject features from the macroscopic to the microscopic level. Here, we present a correlative imaging platform developed specifically for imaging cells in 3D under cryogenic conditions by using X-rays and visible light. Rapid cryo-preservation of biological specimens is the current gold standard in sample preparation for ultrastructural analysis in X-ray imaging. However, cryogenic fluorescence localization methods are, in their majority, diffraction-limited and fail to deliver matching resolution. We addressed this technological gap by developing an integrated, user-friendly platform for 3D correlative imaging of cells in vitreous ice by using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy in conjunction with soft X-ray tomography. The power of this approach is demonstrated by studying the process of reovirus release from intracellular vesicles during the early stages of infection and identifying intracellular virus-induced structures.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





515 - 530.e17


Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, UK.